# Minutes of the second Bredbeck workshop

============================================================================ ========== =========== ========== FORWARD MODEL WORKSHOP, Bredbeck 19-22 June, 2000 =========== ========== =========== ============================================================================ Chairmen: --------- SB = Stefan Buehler PE = Patrick Eriksson JU = Joachim Urban AE = Axel von Engeln ============================================================================ Participants: ------------- SB Stefan Buehler IUPAE Axel von Engeln IUP PE Patrick Eriksson RSS DF Dietrich Feist IAP CJ Carlos Jimenez RSS YK Yasuko Kasai CRL UK Ulf Klein IUP AK Armin Kleinboehl IUP GK Gerhard Kopp IMK TK Thomas Kuhn IUP KK Klaus Kuenzi IUP UL Ulrich Loehnert MUB JM Jungang Miao IUP SO Satoshi Ochiai CRL UR Uwe Raffalski IRF PR Peter Rayer TMO BS Birger Schimpf DLR FS Franz Schreier DLR RS Richard Siddans RAL CT Chikako Takahashi FUJ AT Ariane Thiele MUB JU Joachim Urban OBX CV Carmen Verdes IUP IW Ingo Wohltmann IUP IUP: Institute of Environmental Physics University of Bremen / FB 1 p.o. box: 330440; 28334 Bremen; Germany fax: +421-218-4555 http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/ RSS: Dep. Radio and Space Science Chalmers University of Technology 412 96 Göteborg Sweden CRL: Global Environment Division Communications Research Laboratory 4-2-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan Fax: +81-42-327-6110 http://www.crl.go.jp IAP: Atmospheric Physics Group Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern Sidlerstrasse 5 3012 Bern Switzerland Fax: +41-31-631 3765 IMK: Institut f. Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Postfach 3640 D-76021 Karlsruhe Germany Fax: ++49 7247 824742 MUB: Meteorologisches Institut Uni Bonn Auf dem Huegel 20 D-53121 Bonn/Germany Fax ++49 +228 735188 ftp.meteo.uni-bonn.de http://www.meteo.uni-bonn.de IRF: Swedish Institute of Space Physics Box 812 981 28 Kiruna Sweden Fax: +46 980 790 50 http://www.irf.se TMO: The Met. Office London Road Bracknell, RG12 2SZ United Kingdom Fax: +44 (0)1344 854026 http://www.met-office.gov.uk DLR: DLR - Remote Sensing Technology Institute Oberpfaffenhofen D-82234 Wessling GERMANY Fax +49 8153-28-1446 http://www.op.dlr.de/ne-oe/ir/ RAL: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX, U.K. Fax: (44) (0)1235 445848 FUJ: Fujitu FIP Corporation System Dept. Environmental System Business Division Fax : +81-3-5531-1615 OBX: Observatoire de Bordeaux 2 Rue de l'Observatoire B.P. 89 33270 Floirac France Fax : (++33).(0)5.57.77.61.55 ============================================================================ Monday 19.6.2000 PM (Chairman: SB) ---------------------------------- o Introduction and aims of the workshop (Chairman: SB, 10 min) o Discussion of workshop program (Chairman: SB, 10 min) o Workshop notes and proceedings (Chairman: SB, 5 min) o Overview of forward models not presented last year (Chairman: PE, 2.5 h) Presentations: -------------- 1) MIRART (FS, 25 min) MIRART = Modules for IR Atmospheric Radiance and Transmission Applications: - THOMAS (airborne FIR heterodyne spect. (strat. OH) - BRUKER high resolution FTS - PIRAMMYD (limb sounding with Fabry-Perot-Interferometer, FTS, heterodyne) - AERO-X (FTS meas. of jet engine exhausts) - FOCUS (space borne (ISS) high temp. events) model: line-by-line (lbl) catalogs: HITRAN, JPL, HITEMP line shape functions: Voigt (Humlicek algorithm), Lorentz, VVH*Doppler continuum: CKD, Liebe, FIRS (empirical) FOV: pencil, Box, Gauss (for limb, nadir, zenith) instrument response: sinc, box, Gauss language: F77 with F90 extensions math libs: SLATEC Common Math. Lib. (www.netlib.org), BLAS data format: netCDF interface flow control: "Namelist" grid: fine freq. grid at line centers and wider grid in wings num. quadrature (integration): trapez, overlapping parabolas, spline intercomparison: in PIRAMHYD study with IROE, RAL, SRON additional WEB interface is under study future: - AMiL2DA MIPAS, HGF - aerosols, scattering - Voigt optimization, refraction, non-LTE - code improvement to enlarge spectral range - conversion to F90 and/or steering with Python Questions: - PE: num. quad. rule for temperature? FS: explanation of the integration way. - SB: HITEMP? FS: HITEMP is HITRAN for higher temperatures: H2O, CO2, CO - PR: HITRAN recommended for IR? FS: some wrong O2 isotope data in HITRAN96 in FIR region but otherwise fine. 2) Karlsruhe (GK, 5 min) - hardware: base: ground based F range: 268-280 GHz spec. resolution: 1.2 MHz Spectrometer: AOS - FM: author: M. Kuntz language: F77 cat: HITRAN96, Voigt, VVW line shapes cont: Liebe model: lbl refraction: included layers: Curtis-Godson means sideband filter: sinusoidal not incl: Dopper broadening, pressure shift, scattering, antenna pattern inversion: semi-analytical calc. for homog. thin layers Thikonov-Phillips regularization or optimal estimation Questions: - JU: what is Curtis-Godson means? - PR: elevation angles possible? GK: adjustable - PE: retrieval with TP regularization how it works? GK: each constituent has its own regularization parameter - UL: any climatology needed for retrieval? GK: we use standard profiles - JU: any progress in limb sounding? ! GK: no, KOPRA for MIPAS can perform limb sounding 3) MPM89/92 and RTTOV-6 (Peter Rayer, R. Saunders, 15 min) model: (a) lbl (absorption archive) water vapor (44 lines), oxygen (30 lines) and continuum term (O2, N2, H2O) based on Liebe model MPM89/92 (b) RTTOV-6, fast model for transmittance coeff. satellites of interest: TRMM , METEOSAT, GOES, NOAA because of the weather prediction purpose, no attempt is made to retrieve vmr of trace gases except H2O and ozone FOV: nadir thermodynamics: LT equilibrium assumed the model is maintained in the next years for NWP the code is available since Feb 2000 Questions: - CJ: linear terms in the absorption archive accurate enough? PR: the archive includes also some predictors to minimize errors. - SB: where is the uncertainty larger lbl or fast model? in the lbl model except for some channels. - JU: AMSU-B instrument? PR: there are 60 GHz oxygen band channels etc. 1013 to 0.1 hPa is the altitude region. the measurement is the input of the transmittance models and this output is going into the NWP together with other information. There is no attempt to do separate retrievals with this data and model. - SB: Cirrus clouds? PR: no information for this because others do this job. 4) MWMOD (UL, AT, 50min) MicroWave MODel from Simmer (1994) spec region: 1 to 1000 GHz dimensions: one dim. model and azimuthally isotropic scattering: aspherical droplets are implemented from Czekala (1999) products: TB, scattering, clouds, etc. MWMOD is separated in three modules: (a) "ENVGEN": for the setting of the atmospheric and boundary environment like e.g.: p,T, humidity profiles clouds, ice, rain content wind speed, ocean temperature (b) "IAPGEN": specifications of FM parameters e.g.: freq. and FOV, phase function with Lorentz-Mie theory ocean/ice surface specification (c) "RADTRA": radiative transfer calculations with the rad. trans. equation incl. all the selected topics of the forward model setting the analysis of clouds and liquid water from profiles is with this model possible. MWMOD with non-spherical particles especially for particles above 1mm size necessary. Cross polarization is remarkably in this region. T-matrix method is used instead of Lorentz-Mie theory for spherical particles. See Master Thesis of AT, Univ. of Bonn, for more and detailed information of modeling and retrieval of water liquid paths from rain and clouds. Remarkably is the difference in polarization if one looks from the space to the ground or from the ground to space. Questions: - JM: way is the polarization difference for nadir and zenith direction? AT: why this difference exists is not known jet. This is a subject of the Master Thesis to investigate. UL: there is a validation campaign this summer to validate the model with measurements. - JM: 3. and 4. Stokes parameter can be calculated with MWMOD? AT: no - PR: Liebe MPM9* model can calculate transmittance above 1 caused by adjustments of parameters by Liebe, Hufford and Rosenkranz. So be carful by using MPM9* models! - PE: why only positive polarization differences for spherical particles? UL: perhaps due to assumed T profiles. - SB: why goes the polarization difference so negative at 120 zenith angle degree? UL: Czekala assumed special conditions for this calculations. This is not a general feature. o Updates of forward models since last year (Chairman: PE, 40 min) Presentations: JEM/SMILES (SO and CT, YK, 15 min) hardware: instrument must be shield from electromagnetic interferences from ISS FOV resolution: 3.8 km bands: LSB 624.32-625.52, 625.12-626.32 DSB ? launch: 2006(?) software: MAES = Millimeter-wave Atmospheric Emission Simulator for ground based, balloon based and space born platforms FM1: rad. transfer in the atmosphere cat: HITRAN/JPL and measurements with Lorentz and Voigt line shape cont: Liebe MPM89 refraction implemented FOV direction: limb contributions from antenna side-lob directions to the signal are possible to calculate FM2: instrument part included topics: Doppler shift, beam efficency, calib. loads, optical loss, standing waves, SSB filter, noise, gain, freq. conversion, AOS, power to temperature conversion, freq. calibration, IM: inversion model optimal estimation method, OEM, for retrieval with a priori information Questions: - GK: from where are the line broadening parameters? YK: from HITRAN and own measurements - PE: non-linearities of the instruments from where? SO: estimation of 1 per cent non-linearity, mostly from the optical system - GK: how to treat standing waves in the inversion model? SO: - Moliere-4 (JU, 10 min) Moliere originally for the Odin instrument developed special version of Moliere for real data processing, which is different of the main-stream development of Moliere for model calculations. cat: HITRAN/JPL cont: Liebe MPM93, CKD-89 refraction included weighting function calculation is done analytically language: F90 flow control: ascii input file differences in the intercomparison with FM of iup-Bremen not yet solved completely. ============================================================================ Tuesday 20.6.2000 AM (Chairman: PE) ----------------------------------- Presentation of ARTS -------------------- o General introduction (SB) - increasing time to change already existing FM is not efficient - open source software of ARTS for wider development of the model - present status of the code: not ready for operational data analysis - code in modern C++ with GNU tools and compiler - one has to be aware of the memory consumption during the calculations - to be independent, no existing higher language like idl or matlab is needed to run ARTS o Concept of ARTS (SB) - distinction between workspace variables and workspace methods; workspace methods have workspace variables and control parameters as input - also generic workspace methods can be created - flow control is performed with an ascii input file which will be interpreted with the help of the ARTS parser (internal lookup tables) o Absorption (SB) - not really finished this work, so only a simplified version can be demonstrated - the catalog format is different from other models - SI units of the catalog entries are used - flexibility in handling of the records is the aim of the catalog - tag groups are also implemented. With this one can distinguish distinct lines of one species for different treatment (e.g. weighting functions) - the absorption can be calculated per species with the help of the tag groups - every tag group will have its one line list o Rad. transfer (PE) - line of sight (LOS) 1D, elevation angle (angle with respect to zenith direction) and platform altitude are the parameters to define limb LOS - LOS are divided into equally distant steps or calculations - T and absorption are linearly interpolated o Sensor modeling (PE) - FM is divided into two parts, one for the atmospheric part (FM1) and one for the sensor part (FM2). FM1 is the input of FM2 - the sensor is treated as matrix multiplications, for each sensor part a single matrix is build. Nonlinearities are therefore not implemented - data reduction is also considered (binning, eigenvector decomposition) - weighting functions (WF) are calculated analytically where possible and numerically else - decomposition of the WF into appropriate parts which are easy to handle in the calculations (constant part, vertical variations, changes with changing state vector) - hydrostatic equilibrium is used for WF of the temperature - the vertical grid is expressed in pressure not in km. - because of geometrical reasons, the correspondence of pressure and altitude is internally used in ARTS for limb sounding - the spherically symmetric atmosphere which is assumed at the moment is not severe problem if one would like to include 2D modeling - at the moment it is not definitely decided where all the different measurement errors should enter the forward model o practical demonstration of ARTS (SB) Presentation of BEAM -------------------- o BEAM, Bernese Atmospheric Model (D. Feist) - general purpose model which is also optimized for fast calculations for certain conditions with numerical optimization - the accuracy of the optimized calculations is very good - spectral line catalog BAMCAT especially developed for BEAM - the interpolation in the predefined frequency grid is done with splines ============================================================================ Wednesday 21.6.2000 AM (Chairman: JU) ------------------------------------- small group work about the following topics: a) Spectroscopic matters (SB, YK, UR, GK) - with new measurements one can compare data and catalog entries for crucial parameters - it should be explicitely stated if the data in a catalog is calculated or measured - catalog format as it is stated in the proceedings of the first Bredbeck workshop is in principal good - difficulties to merge catalog data into one operational list for the FM. UL, PE, DF, SB have done this in different ways for their FM. Perhaps a Japanese groups will do it also for SMILES - another point is how new information should/will be integrated into existing structures - DF has a well worked out algorithm how to merge different catalogs and to put the information into a flexible structure. This module will be public in near future - DF propose that it should be possible to overcome the old computer capacity restricted format which is now the state. It should be possible to establish a general data base for spectral data which will contain every information possible. The user should then select himself which data set with which reliability level and which format he will select/take. This can be done via Internet. All participants agree and encourage DF to set up such a data base b) Extension to IR (PE, FS, BS, JU) - motivation: it is not a big step to enlarge the freq. range to IR - applications: ground based FTIR space based limb sounder (MIPAS) space based nadir sounder (IASI) other balloon, airborne based instruments airplane exhaust investigations - physics problems: scattering, non-LTE, spec. (CO, CO2). continua, dry air, H2O: FIR uncertainties. refraction is also a matter of investigation. line strengths information is a question (vibrational states). - computational problem: narrow freq. grids which leads bulk of frequency based calculations Therefore an intelligent frequency grid should be used. Line shape function calculated by decomposition of Lorentz in subfunctions by Clough and Kneizys in Applied Optics July 1979 is a fast method D. Edwards, 1991 has proposed another algorithm which is used in GENLN2. MIPAS retrieval uses a microwindow approach for fast calculations - sensor: FOV coherent detectors : Gauss incoherent detectors : box function - FM code: + University of Oxford is writing a detailed FM for MIPAS. + KOPRA is a general FM which is used for MIPAS from the the Univ. of Karlsruhe. + It is not really clear if FASCODE is still maintained or not. In the proceedings a list of references will be given to different models and intercomparisons. c) 2D forward model (RS, AE, CV, CJ, SO, CT) - RS is presenting the 2D results of the ESTEC MASTER extension study. Detailed information about this study can be given by RS and SB. The final report will soon be available (2 months) d) Scattering (UL, JM, AK, AT) - when? when the wave length is of the order of the scatterer size the scattering is of importance. clouds: 100 micrometer rain : 500 micrometer frequency 3 GHz correspondence to 100 mm in wave length frequency 1000 GHz correspondence to 0.3 mm in wave length - how? + for spheres Mie theory is applicable: Mie parameter is chi = 2 * pi * r / lambda if chi is smaller than 1, Rayleigh scattering can be used if chi is larger than 1, Mie scattering can be used + for non-spherical particles: axial symmetry: quasi analytical treatment (T-matrix method) arbitrary form: volume integration method (DDA) - radiative transfer: extension of the simple Beer-Lambert equation for scattering terms (extinction and source term are different from non-scattering) - solving methods: successive order of scattering, Monte Carlo, doubling adding (Evans) - implementation: integration into ARTS is difficult because of the different way of processing the radiative transfer. e) Application to meteorology/assimilation (PR, IW, DF, TK) - frequency band of interest for the ,met. operation 20 to 200 GHz approximately for T, humidity, total column of H2O - nadir sounding is the normal way - only LTE is considered - Operation requirements: + fast calculations is the dominant requirement + if this can be done lbl calculation is an open question. At the moment an approximation and pre-calculations are taken into the FM of transmittance calculations + an adjoint FM module will calculate the Jacobian matrix numerically If an analytic way of calculation is comparable in speed is not clear. + The NWP standard is to divide the FM into two parts: one which calculates fast the rad. transfer and one part for fast Jacobian matrix calculation (best estimate of the atmospheric state vector similar to OEM) - ground emissivity is still an open question - additional trace gases which are not included into the FM at the present can give a systematic effect which can be treated by including these gases into the FM - scattering is another matter which should be concerned if the speed is not going down of the FM - Future applications: + models must cope with the NWP speed and the increasing amount of data from satellites + including trace gases for met. products (e.g. ozone) + models have to be comparable with the accuracy of the future sensors and the improved NWP models. + NWP people has to be convinced to take satellite data into account for their calculations. It is not a priori given that the NWP people will use this essential input in future. This is completely different from the atmospheric science community ============================================================================ Wednesday, 21.06.2000 PM ------------------------ Retrieval issues: (Chairman: AE, 2.5 h) Existing strategies and approaches Presentations: o Tikhonov retrieval code (BS, 25 min) - regularization with quadratic constraints - additional qualitative information comes from the constraints of the smoothness of the solution - numerical stability with generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) - the determination of the regularization parameter lambda comes from the L-curve criterion - current retrieval code is a stand alone package in F90 - in future Python will be used for the scripting language - ground based FT measurement are processed with this retrieval package - future: additional constraints: profiles larger than zero automation of simultaneous retrieval of several profiles comparability of different retrieval methods application to data of FOCUS, AERO-X, MIPAS, SCIAMMACY, GOME - questions: SB: what is the operator for positiveness constraints BS: current search in the math. literature for solutions, but the implementation will be not straightforward PE: log retrieval for positiveness constraints BS: with this approach the problem will be then non-linear which makes it difficult GK: simultaneous retrieval: how to determine lambda then BS: relative values from a priori because n-dimensional L-curve solutions are difficult to find. Mathematicians will help to solve this o Neural nets (nn), (CJ, 20 min) - introduction into neuronal nets and its structures - the setup of a neuronal net for a retrieval problem is basically to be found by trial and error. There is no fixed structure - input: spectra, output: profiles - advantage of neuronal nets: is the handling of non-linear problems computational cost is lower than with OEM - model calculations performed for Odin - the retrieval results are very similar for both methods for O3, ClO - also averaging kernels and errors can be calculated with nn in the case of nn, the AK oscillate stronger around zero than OEM. The cause of this is not understood now - Discussion: AE: how many training sets? CJ: 500 training sets are used AE: different nn for different latitude and seasons ranges? CJ: yes UL: additional information input of the nn? CJ: not yet but in the future like platform high etc DF: how is the nn implemented? CJ: with matlab today but different in future RS: how is the AK calculated? CJ: contribution function with nn and afterwards build up with Jacobian to AK. JM: what about noise in the nn, will the nn recognize noise? CJ: it is in principle no general problem BS: what will be if an actual spectra is out of the training set variability? CJ: there will be of course problems in this case. Therefore the training set including the FM should be very carefully selected o Interfaces between forward model and retrieval algorithm Presentations: Urd (PE, 10 min) - interface to Sculd and retrieval program - four different variable levels - correlation functions are modeled Gaussian, exponential or tenth function - Cholesky decomposition method used - Discussion: PE: be aware of non-linearities in the calculation of the retrieval FS: Python (www.python.org) - full object oriented free for use scripting language - the program will be interpreted by the interpreter - intensive calculations should be done in FORTRAN, C, C++ because of its slow speed PE: set up of the retrieval with matlab RS: set up of the retrieval with idl o Towards the ultimate forward model: (Chairman: SB, 1 h) Possible discussion topics: Demands: - ARTS should be on a level of a reference model + how far can be the approximation ? - on which level should the scattering implemented? + application: AMSU-B, MASTER, up-looking mm instruments for H2O column + basic scattering model for the first step of implementation: spherical particles, 3D + for what purpose should the scattering included? cirrus cloud detection/correction, etc. This determines the complexity of the scattering model useful levels of scattering model: . 4 Stokes 3D (full complexity) . sources for phase functions from Uni Bonn . MASTER: 2D important, polarization unimportant . AMSU-B: 2D unimportant, polarization important - instrumental characteristics implementation + no derivatives with respect of instrumental parameters + at the moment matlab is used to setup the matrix H (PE) + H must be inside ARTS in future + it has to be considered that e.g. instrumental modules are divided into several components (e.g. several AOS in parallel) + frequency shift should be possible to implement into the instrument model - practical demands: + (PR) by calculating the absorption coefficients: mixing table approach (see GENLN2) for different cases simultaneously + (DF) will the line selection be done? . cooperation between Uni Berne and Uni Bremen is suggested for the line data base (DF, SB) . line selection is to some extend included in ARTS in future (SB) . ARTS should be intelligent to select only the really necessary lines for the user defined accuracy (JU) . in BEAM the line selection is automatically done by the forward model itself, but it is not recommended (DF) . (SB) suggest that it should be possible in ARTS to write out the lines which are selected by a single FM run to use this line catalog in other FM runs as well . (BS) ARTS should provide some intermediate results for the user + (DF) which continuum models will be included? (SB) MPMXX, Rosenkranz, CKD - atmospheric setup - surface emissivity 2D setup - interpolation (RS RAL uses bi-linear approach for MASTER extension study) Speed / accuracy: - including scattering should not slow down the FM in a severe manner - parallelization of the calculation on a small scale should be easily possible (e.g. split up in respect of frequencies) - use parameterized calculations if possible (e.g. lookup tables) frequency interpolation: - (DF) reduction in CPU time can be achieved by having a fine grid at line centers and a wide grid in regions where no spectral feature is - (FS) the frequency grid is for every altitude level separately chosen in FASCODE, GENLN2 (valid for FASCODE, for GENLN2 I don´t know it but I can look it up if necessary). The Voigt line shape function is necessarily approximated. In FASCODE, the Lorentz line shape function is decomposed but the sum of the parts gives at the end the original Lorentz function. Suggestion: In FASCODE the frequency grid is set up appropriately for each layer and the transmission/radiance given on a coarse grid (lower altitudes) is interpolated before combined with transmissions/radiances given on a fine grid (higher altitudes). GENLN2 uses a fine mesh (grid) for line center contributions and a wide mesh for line wings. FASCODE uses a decomposition of the Lorentz function in fast, medium and slowly varying subfunctions (with the sum still being a Lorentz) and accumulates these different contributions line by line. The contributions are combined AFTER all lines have been calculated using appropriate interpolation. - ARTS should not be restricted in the choice of the line shape function. By investigating influences of the line shape an approximation will be a severe drawback - the absorption output will be on a common frequency grid for all altitudes in ARTS at least at the beginning (PE) Discretization: - how to interpolate in general? + log interpolation seems superior than linear (DF) + there should be a single interpolation scheme for one variable over the whole interval of interest (PE) + atmospheric variables like altitude, temperature, VMR, absorption linear sufficient in log(pressure) (SB) + frequency more sophisticated interpolation schemes make sense (RS) + BS suggest that the interpolation schemes should be hidden in an object oriented (OO) code so that the user can choose + (BS) ARTS should provide the information of the interpolation schemes used Distribution stuff: - distribution can be taken from the Internet - distribution includes all the code and all the documentation - a user and a developer version will be available. The developer version will have a version control Control mechanisms: - (DF) at the moment BEAM will work from matlab, idl + input/output is given in the matlab environment to BEAM - for retrieval it is needed to perform loops of the FM, therefore the control file mechanism must support this - PE has a similar approach for Skuld as DF for BEAM - with respect to a completely separated retrieval program, input/output should be as ascii files. - The FM should provide as much information directly to the retrieval algorithm as possible - communication between FM retrieval algorithm is a difficult task. BS uses python to build the interface of the FM and the core of the retrieval program - it is a matter of taste how strong the FM should be linked / should depend on the retrieval program. It is suggested to have the FM as independent as possible from specific retrieval programs (FS, BS, JU). ============================================================================ Minutes Thursday 22.06.2000 AM ------------------------------ o (FS) Web interface at DLR for FASCODE3 (and others) - the input control file is very hard to understand and manipulate for users not really familiar with FASCODE - FASCODE uses many I/O files - PFUI = Python FASCODE3 User Interface the interface is written in Python - introduction page is standard for all applications and the following pages are dynamically build up for the specific input - WIMP = Web Interface to MODTRAN using Phyton - it is planned to have a similar interface for MIRART - the Python code for PFUI is several thousands of lines long - Discussion: PE: is it open for all? FS: in principle yes, but a password is to be given AE: can different calculations be performed simultaneously? FS: yes, for every user a unique directory is temporarily created o Towards the ultimate forward model, cont. (Chairman: PE, 2.5 h) - partition functions + for ARTS SB has asked Bob Gamache for his program "tips". Documentation will be available soon. It will be perhaps used as a black box in ARTS. o Best algorithms for the different parts: - Presentation: van Vleck & Huber (PR, 15 min) + this is the line shape on which Clough et al base the CKD model + just for thermal equilibrium (LTE) developed + negative frequency expressions can be understood as processes in negative time direction (going backwards in time to the past) + the abs. coeff. satisfies the demand of being an even function of frequency + It also fulfills the generalized Nyquist theorem + the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also fulfilled + in the microwave region the VVH will reduce to the VVW line shape function + in the IR the VVH will be in a form which is also used by the HITRAN catalog for stating the line intensity + PR is writing a book about this topic + Discussion PR: the oxygen coupling derived of Rosenkranz is also based on VVH SB: how to convolute VVH and Doppler line broadening function? PR: the GENLN2 is also a source for looking how to do the convolution of the line shape function with the Doppler line broadening function IW: where to put the frequency shift? PR: frequency shift will only be formulated in the line shape function because the shift is caused by the pressure broadening so that this is the only proper place to introduce it in the formulas PR: MPM93 has played at the line strength and line coupling parameters to fit the data better. But this leads to unphysical results if one is looking to the absorption or transmittance of oxygen. So one has to be careful by using MPM93 for this particular calculations PR: eventually the Lorentzian line shape function gives too much absorption in the far wing of H2O - Presentation: MAES WF improvement (SO, 15 min) + analytical WF of limb sounding with finite antenna pattern: WF is first calculated for pencil beam antenna and after that integration of the WFs with the antenna pattern + the limb path is divided into five different parts along the LOS and the WF into three parts which add up together to the final one + estimation of number of steps required to calculate WF for a typical case: 1.6 10^6 + this way of calculation has the possibility to reduce the calculational burden in some simple cases + Problems: complicated calculations, use of approximations, hardly to extend to 2D cases + Discussion: PE: the thinking for ARTS goes in some details in the same direction (e.g. "LOS-WF") - continuum absorption + MPMXX are empirically derived so that the frequency range for its use is limited below 1000 GHz + dry air continuum is a point for itself. It is not really clear from which species and which physics it is coming from in some aspects. On which level it is really accurate is an open question + (SB) Bremen is using Rosenkranz formulation in FM + (PE) is it possible to treat all different continuum models in the same way in the FM? (SB) not really it is only possible by parameterizing some models (e.g. CKD) and loosing the original form and with it some features + (SB) it is perhaps the best to write for every model a separate workspace method. (PE) then one runs into problems with the different line catalogs which are assumed in different models + (JU) which model is the recommended? (SB) difficult to say, but Rosenkranz seems to be acceptable + (PE) there was an error in the description in MPM92 at a freq. of around 500 GHz with an specific isotopic O2 line. Fore details ask P. Baron, Observatoire de Bordeaux + (PR) there are several typos in the papers of Liebe, so be careful + (PR) in MPM93 the definition of the line strength changed, so is it compatible with the way ARTS will treat the continuum? (SB) it will be clearly documented how these things are treated in ARTS - surface emissivity PE: is there a simple model/emissivity values which can be used? KK: the emissivity of the ocean surfaces is between .5 (plain surface) and 1 (foam) PR: S. English has also specific knowledge about this topic KK: The participants of the specific COST working group also could give some information - refractive index (ri) SB: frequency dependence of the ri should be known for wide band calculations PE: influence of the solar light is notable in IR region for some geometries. CJ has done some work on this - sparse matrices PE: TNT is used for ARTS at the moment but it is not so promising RS: lapack is used at RAL AK: C++ package DIFPACK used FS: NETLIB, C++, has also such features www.netlib.org o Open questions since last workshop (Chairman: SB, 20 min) Are they solved? - spectroscopy: + ARTS line catalog content and format, solved (Proc. 1. Bredbeck WS) + partition functions, solved (TIPS of Bob Gamache) - radiative transfer: + interpolation solved but needs more discussions (linear) - WF: + transform from LOS grid to retrieval grid, solved (PE, ARTS user guide) - sensor treatment: + H-matrix approach for linear effects, solved but further discussions needed (PE, ARTS development status) o Summary (Chairman: SB, 20 min) - (PE) discussion who is contributing what to the proceedings *********************************************************** + spectroscopy: YK + FM: RS (2d), DF (BEAM), SO (MEAN), FS (IR), PR (met app) + scattering: JM + retrieval interface: RS, PE + retrieval: CJ + line shape functions: PR + optimization: DF + Web interface: FS + ARTS: SB, PE + layout will be distributed by PE, postscript or PDF format - Thank you for coming! ============================================================================ minutes written by Thomas Kuhn, iup, 29.06.2000 ============================================================================